Epidemiology of urinary candidiasis and antifungal susceptibility pattern of various Candida species at a rural tertiary health care centre of Puducherry, South India- An observational study


Original Article

Author Details : Nagma Rafi, Udhaya Sankar Ranganathan*, Gopal Rangasamy, Mangaiyarkarasi Thiyagarajan, Sunil Shivekar

Volume : 7, Issue : 2, Year : 2021

Article Page : 103-107

https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijmmtd.2021.023



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Abstract

Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health problem across the globe. Although majority of them are bacterial in origin, there has been an increasing trend in the incidence of UTI due to the yeast like fungi, Candida. UTI due to Candida species are in large proportion noscomially acquired and of growing concern is the development of resistance to the commonly used azole group of drugs for their treatment. Since the resistance is more commonly reported among non- albicans Candida species, routine species identification and antifungal susceptibility testing is crucial for successful clinical outcomes.
Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to analyse the distribution and risk factors associated with Urinary candidiasis and also to determine the resistance patterns of different Candida species to various antifungal agents using phenotypic methods.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based observational study was conducted from September 2016 to December 2017 on patients presenting with symptomatic UTI. Candida isolates were speciated using phenotypic methods like germ tube test and growth character on chromagar candida. Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B were determined using disc diffusion method.
Statistical Analysis: All data were anlyzed using EpiData Analysis software version 2.2.2.186.
Results: A total of 101 Candida species were isolated. The incidence of Urinary candidiasis was more among females (66.4%) than in males (33.6%). People above 50 years (38.6%) were commonly affected followed by people in the age group of 21-30 years (22.7%). The incidence among hospitalized patients was 86.7% and urinary catheterization (43.5%) was the most commonly associated risk factor. The most common isolates were Candida tropicalis (31.6%) followed by Candida albicans (21.7%). The overall resistance patterns among various Candida species were 50.5%, 32.7%, 19.9% and 2% for fluconazole,
ketoconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B respectively.
Conclusion: Hospitalization and urinary catheterization are the important risk factors for developing urinary candidiasis. The antifungal susceptibility varies among different Candida species and hence, identification of Candida to species level along with antifungal susceptibility testing should be practiced as a routine in all clinical mycology laboratories.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection, Risk factors for urinary candidiasis, Candida species, Antifungal susceptibility.


How to cite : Rafi N , Ranganathan U S, Rangasamy G , Thiyagarajan M , Shivekar S , Epidemiology of urinary candidiasis and antifungal susceptibility pattern of various Candida species at a rural tertiary health care centre of Puducherry, South India- An observational study. IP Int J Med Microbiol Trop Dis 2021;7(2):103-107


Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and IP Int J Med Microbiol Trop Dis. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (creativecommons.org)



Article History

Received : 03-05-2021

Accepted : 22-05-2021

Available online : 25-06-2021


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https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijmmtd.2021.023


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