A needle stick injury (NSI) is an accidental skin penetrating stab wound from a hollow bore needle containing another person’s blood or body fluid, leading to transmission of blood borne infections such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus.1
Nurses are the core care providers for patients in the hospital and thus have the highest rate of needle stick injury among all the health care workers.2
This is possibly be due to performance of invasive and non-invasive procedures to the patients besides injection administration more often than any other staff.3
Nurses working on hospitals with lower staffing rates and high levels of emotional stress and exhaustion related to their jobs had significantly higher likelihoods of needle stick injuries.4
It is estimated that the risk of contracting hepatitis B infection due to a needle prick injury is 100 times higher than that of contracting HIV.3 Most people at risk for occupational exposures are in developing countries where there is paucity of standard reporting protocol.5
Aim & Objectives
A cross sectional study was conducted by using a structured questionnaire derived from previously published literature from India, having close ended and multiple choice questions.
10 Questions in knowledge parameters and 15 questions in practice parameters were included
Informed verbal consent was taken prior to distribution of the self reporting Questionnaire and 100 nursing staffs were included.
Response rate was 80%
Mean Age of the participants was 29.5±5 years
Majority of them were female i e 97%
Incidence of NSI was 45%
Only 24% of the nurses were aware of definition of NSI
About 90% of them were aware of the infections transmitted
85% of them were unaware of ‘no-recapping’ technique of disposal of needles
90% of them were aware of standard precautions,
Overall knowledge was adequate among 65% nurses (>8 questions correct for knowledge parameters
Only 35% nurses reported their NSI to the concerned physician after the incident
24% of them knew post exposure prophylaxis
98% of reported NSI were due to recapping of needles
It was observed that educational qualification was significantly associated with recent NSI. GNM nurses had high chances of NSI injury compared to M.Sc. Nursing staff and it was found to be statistically significant.
Disposable syringe needle (64.1%) was the most common device leading to NSI among the nurses.
During rush (47% was the circumstance due to which NSI was frequent in occurrence
85% of the nurses recapped with both hands
90% of the nursing staffs reported fully vaccinated status against Hepatitis-B
Only 56% of the nursing staffs were aware of post exposure prophylaxis after NSI
Only 24% of them were aware of the blood tests required after an NSI from a known HBsAg positive patient.
In the present study, only 24% of the nurses were aware of definition of NSI i.e., they did not differentiate between harmful and harmless needle prick whereas 25.4% of the participants had adequate knowledge reported by Saravanan et al from Manipur, 2018.4 But in one study conducted by Zia M et al,2017, 77.1% of the participants had good knowledge.6
45% experienced needle stick injury in the past 6 months in this study. Similar findings were seen among nurses in other studies.
But in a study conducted by Ahmed AS in Egypt, there was a high prevalence of needle stick injuries among nurses of 55.93%.7
Recapping of needles (98%) was one of the main procedures that caused NSIs as compared to securing IV line (21%).
Although 90% of the nursing staff were aware of standard precautions but in practice 98% of the needle stick injuries occurred due to recapping.
85% Nurses recapped with both hands hands.
90% of the nursing staffs reported fully vaccinated status against Hepatitis-B.
Younger staff had better knowledge than older staffs but practice wise NSIs were more reported by younger staff.
Training of all the nursing staff both new and existing ones, towards Needle stick injury prevention.
Strict adherence to absolute "no-recapping" technique after using needles.
Scooping method with one hand to be promoted while recapping.
Mandatory testing of Anti HBS titre levels to all new staffs even if they say, they are fully vaccinated against Hepatitis-B at the time of joining.